Jan 252017
 

Often Asked Questions most the NIH Populace Admission Insurance

A. Insurance Backcloth

A. Cosmopolitan Entropy

The Insurance implements Sectionalisation G, Style II, Department 218 of PL 110-161 (Coalesced Appropriations Act, 2008) which states:
SEC. 218. The Manager of the Interior Institutes of Wellness shall need that all investigators funded by the NIH state or sustain submitted for them to the Subject Library of Medicate’s PubMed Exchange an electronic rendering of their last peer-reviewed manuscripts upon adoption for issue, to be made publically useable no subsequently than 12 months afterward the functionary appointment of publishing: Provided, That the NIH shall apply the world admission insurance in a style uniform with copyright law.
The Populace Admittance Insurance ensures that the world has admittance to the promulgated results of NIH-funded inquiry. It requires scientists to state net peer-reviewed diary manuscripts that uprise from NIH finances to the digital archive PubMed Primal (http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/ ). The Insurance requires that these terminal peer-reviewed manuscripts be approachable to the populace on PubMed Primal to assistance feeler skill and better homo wellness.

PubMed Key is an archive of full-text biomedical daybook document useable on-line without a fee. Document on PubMed Cardinal arrest links to former scientific databases such as GenBank (http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/Genbank/ ) and PubChem (http://pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ ). Document poised below the World Admittance Insurance are archived on PubMed Primal. Start off by https://writemypaper4me.org essay writing service getting a plastic notecard box with tab dividers. More entropy roughly PubMed Cardinal is uncommitted at http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/around/faq. html.

  • What are the benefits of bill peer-reviewed document to PubMed Exchange?

    Erst posted to PubMed Exchange, results of NIH-funded search suit more salient, incorporated and approachable, devising it easier for all scientists to prosecute NIH’s inquiry antecedency areas competitively. PubMed Primal materials are incorporate with enceinte NIH explore information bases such as Genbank and PubChem, which helps speed scientific uncovering. Clinicians, patients, educators, and students can punter harvest the benefits of document arising from NIH support by accessing them on PubMed Cardinal at no care. Lastly, the Insurance allows NIH to reminder, mine, and produce its portfolio of taxpayer funded explore more efficaciously, and archive its results in sempiternity.

    A. Telescope of the Insurance

    1. To what types of document does the NIH World Admittance Insurance utilise?
    2. How does the NIH populace approach insurance delimitate a diary? If a publishing is in the daybook part of the NLM catalogue, NIH considers it to be a diary. Lookup the daybook segment of NLM Catalogue (http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/nlmcatalog/journals ) for the diary by style, claim abbreviation, or ISSN. Robotlike suggestions leave showing as you typewrite. If the publishing is not on the name, NIH bequeath believe it a diary for insurance purposes if it meets all of the pursual criteria:
      • Publishing moldiness fulfil the requirements for ISSN designation
      • Issue contented is issued concluded clip below a commons championship
      • Issue is a assembling of articles by unlike authors
      • Publishing is intended to be promulgated indefinitely
      • You may likewise resign the ms to NIHMS upon toleration for publishing for a decision.

      • Does the Populace Entree Insurance employ to dissertations or script chapters?

        No, the insurance solitary applies to peer-reviewed daybook manuscripts. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/determine_applicability. htm for the good criteria. Delight likewise be certainly to sustain that the issue does not fulfil the populace accession definition for a daybook.

      • Does the populace entree insurance utilise to reassessment articles?

        It does if the theme is peer-reviewed and meets the former criteria. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/determine_applicability. htm for a wide-cut leaning.

      • How does NIH shape the prescribed escort of issue?

        NIH determines the functionary appointment of issue for the populace accession insurance based on info standard from the publisher and the Interior Library of Music (NLM). The functionary appointment of publishing is listed in the PubMed quote expose for a report now later the daybook entitle abbreviation.

        NIH uses the prescribed engagement of issue for determinant the populace entree compliancy condition of a newspaper and shrewd when a composition should be made world on PubMed Primal. An epub beforehand of mark escort for a mention in PubMed is not considered the functionary escort of issue, and these document are hush considered in jam.

        Bill that when sole fond issue dates are uncommitted (e. g. Month and Class, Flavor and Class), NLM calculates the escort as the commencement appointment of that period (e. g. Borderland 2013=Border 1, 2013). See http://www. nlm. nih. gov/bsd/licensee/elements_article_source. html for extra entropy astir NLM dates.

      • My newspaper is based on search alone part funded by NIH. Is the theme mandatory to be submitted?

        Yes, the Populace Admission Insurance applies to any holograph that arises from any total of mastermind backing from the NIH. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/determine_applicability. htm.

      • My wallpaper is based on explore funded by NIH but does not drop below the World Admittance insurance timeframe (e. g. subsidisation or conjunctive arrangement that expired earlier Financial Class 2008 or an NIH take awarded earlier April 7, 2008). May I reconcile it?

        You are not requisite to accede it, but you may if you let earmark copyright license. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/determine_applicability. htm.

      • Am I responsible document that originate from my NIH-funded externalise for which I am not an writer?

        Head Investigators and their Institutions are responsible ensuring all price and weather of awards are met. This includes the compliance of net peer-reviewed manuscripts that develop straight from their awards, eventide if they are not an generator or co-author of the theme. Dealer Investigators and their Institutions should control that authors are mindful of and follow with the NIH World Accession Insurance.

      • Is the NIH World Approach Insurance a shape of honour?

        The NIH World Approach Insurance is a Terminus and Term of Awarding for all grants and conjunct agreements dynamic in Financial Twelvemonth 2008 (October 1, 2007- September 30, 2008) or subsequent financial age, and for all contracts awarded subsequently April 7, 2008.

      • Leave submission with the NIH World Admittance Insurance sham the consequence of the covering reappraisal?

        Conformation with the NIH Populace Accession Insurance is not a factor the scientific and technological deserve valuation of yield applications. Non-compliance leave be addressed administratively, and may wait or forestall award of finances.

      • Do document arising from enquiry that makes use of NIH supported heart labs or substructure likewise dip nether the NIH Populace Accession Insurance? E. g. , do any concluding peer-reviewed manuscripts based on explore victimisation services supported by Clinical and Translational Skill Laurels, motivation to be submitted?

        If a ms arises from calculate finances from a Clinical and Translational Skill Accolade, or any former NIH backing, so it mightiness capitulation below the Insurance. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/determine_applicability. htm for all the comprehension criteria. Your foundation should be capable to help you in deciding whether NIH engineer finances were mired.

      • The ambit of the NIH Populace Entree Insurance refers to awards that are ‘instantly funded’ by NIH. Does this imply lonesome those awards that an innovation receives now, or does it admit sub-awards?

        Engineer support mostly includes sub-awards because they are associated with a especial accolade. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/determine_applicability. htm for all the comprehension criteria. Your founding should be capable to attend you in determinative whether NIH organize finances were convoluted.

      • What is a chief awardee’s duty for sub-recipient conformity with the NIH Populace Entree Insurance?

        The elemental awardee’s duty to check sub-recipient conformation with the NIH Populace Accession Insurance is the like as the awardee’s obligation for otc requirements when collaborating with otc organizations in implementation NIH-supported inquiry. Consequently, the NIH Populace Approach Insurance essential should be integrated into sub-recipient agreements, and the elementary awardee cadaver responsible conformity.

      • Testament NIH accord exceptions to the insurance?

        We leave concede exceptions sole below the nigh extremum fortune, such as decease of the exclusive generator. NIH volition regard such exceptions on a individual footing.

        B. How to Follow With the Insurance

        1. What do I get to do to follow with the NIH World Admission Insurance?
        2. Whose commendation do I demand to bow my terminal peer-reviewed ms to PubMed Key?

          Authors own the archetype copyrights to materials they save. Ordered with mortal arrangements with authors’ employing institutions, authors much transferral about or all of these rights to the publisher when the diary agrees to release their composition. Roughly publishers may ask authors to transportation these rights when the theme is commencement submitted to the daybook.

          Authors should oeuvre with the publisher earlier any rights are transferred to guarantee that all weather of the NIH Populace Entree Insurance can be met. Authors should annul signing any agreements with publishers that do not tolerate the generator to follow with the NIH World Accession Insurance.

          Authorities deeds are not matter to copyright aegis in the Joined States. NIH employees perpetually mustiness resign their terminal peer-reviewed ms to PubMed Key, flush if all otc authors of the clause are not Federal employees.

        3. Can NIH allow lyric that could be ill-used in a copyright understanding betwixt an source or instauration and a publisher?

          NIH can furnish an illustration. Mortal copyright arrangements can issue many forms, and authors and their institutions should proceed to handle such arrangements as they get in the by.

          Institutions and investigators may want to produce especial copyright correspondence damage in audience with their own effectual direction or over-the-counter applicable functionary at their creation, as capture. As an exercise, the kinda speech that an generator or creation mightiness add to a copyright accord includes the next:

          “Diary acknowledges that Generator retains the correct to cater a transcript of the concluding peer-reviewed holograph to the NIH upon credence for Diary publishing, for populace archiving in PubMed Primal as shortly as potential but no ulterior than 12 months astern publishing by Daybook. ”

          Your Introduction or pro lodge may deliver highly-developed particular manakin terminology for this design, also.

        4. A publisher says that an NIH-funded newspaper cannot be deposited below the NIH World Admission Insurance. What should I do?

          The awardee creation is responsible confluence the damage and weather of present, which includes ensuring any agreements with tierce parties, wish a publisher, reserve abidance with the NIH world entree insurance. When requirement, the awardee foundation should workplace immediately with the publisher to see the newspaper is posted to PubMed Key (PMC) in accord with the Insurance. To annul miscommunication, awardees may want to let publishers experience a holograph is issue to the insurance ahead the publisher decides to follow-up it.

        5. What is the deviation ‘tween a concluding peer-reviewed holograph and terminal promulgated clause? Which interpretation of my wallpaper should I bow?

          The NIH Populace Accession Insurance is based on a law that requires investigators to resign their concluding, peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Exchange. NIH testament assume the concluding promulgated clause in place of the last peer-reviewed ms, provided that the source has the redress to accede this variation.

          Net peer-reviewed ms:The Detective’s net holograph of a peer-reviewed composition recognised for diary issue, including all modifications from the referee serve.

          Terminal promulgated clause:The diary’s classical replicate of the theme, including all modifications from the publication referee procedure, copyediting and stylistic edits, and format changes.

        6. How do I admit the PubMed Cardinal acknowledgment act in my citations?
        7. Where in the covering am I compulsory to inclination the PMCID?
        8. What do I do if the PubMed Primal denotation numeral (PMCID) has not been assigned yet?

          A PMCID is commonly not useable until some the sentence of publishing (see http://publicaccess. nih. gov/citation_methods. htm for more data). If victimization entry Methods A or B. and it has been more tercet months aft the prescribed escort of publishing, delight tangency the World Approach Helpdesk. If victimisation entry Methods C or D. delight jump or ended the holograph compliance appendage at the NIHMS. It normally takes around 6 weeks to get a PMCID, from starting to cultivation.

        9. How do I regulate if my NIHMSID is stillness valid?
        10. Do I bear to admit a PMCID for every composition that I quotation in an NIH coating, proposition or procession study?

          Yes, admit the PMCID if the report is:

        11. How do I get the PMC acknowledgment bit (PMCID) so I can citation it on my covering, proposition or composition?
        12. What are roughly of the actions NIH may payoff when investigators and institutions die to takings stairs to insure submission with the NIH World Entree Insurance?

          A alienee’s nonstarter to follow with the price and weather of prize may campaign NIH to proceeds one or more enforcement actions, contingent the harshness and continuance of the non-compliance. NIH volition contract any such fulfil in conformity with applicable statutes, regulations, and policies. NIH broadly testament yield the alienee an chance to set the deficiencies ahead winning enforcement activeness unless populace wellness or eudaemonia concerns demand straightaway accomplish. Nonetheless, level if a alienee is pickings disciplinal fulfill, NIH may return proactive fulfil to protect the Federal regime’s interests, including placing particular weather on awards or precluding the alienee from obtaining next awards for a specified stop, or may issue litigate intentional to forestall hereafter non-compliance, such as nigher monitoring. See Enforcement Actions in the NIH Grants Insurance Argument (10/12): http://grants. nih. gov/grants/insurance/nihgps_2012/nihgps_ch8. htm#_Toc271264977

        13. A Pi (PI) at our foundation unwittingly sign-language an source accord with a daybook that does not license meekness to PubMed Cardinal. What stairs should the PI and the innovation contract?

          The NIH World Admission Insurance is a requisite. The PI should workplace with their institutional functionary to follow with the Insurance.

        14. For T32 private-enterprise renewals, where do I theme publications, and for what metre periods?

          Story the publishing productiveness of trainees during their intact grooming point via Breeding Information Board 5 (see the lesson and particular instructions on reportage periods in the coalesced information defer set at http://grants. nih. gov/grants/support/datatables/Consolidated_Training_Tables. pdf ). If selected for backing, NIH leave quest a Barely Yet My Bibliography PDF deference theme for the about late twelvemonth of trainee publications.

          C. What Inevitably to Be Submitted

          1. The diary that promulgated my study routinely deposits its document in PubMed Fundamental. Do I let to resign my report myself?

            It depends on which interpretation of the theme the diary is depositing the concluding promulgated clause or the last peer-reviewed holograph and on the footing of any arrangement that the diary may get with NIH.

            See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/submit_process. htm to mold what stairs you pauperization to yield, if any, to posit your report.

          2. I contrive to issue in an afford accession daybook. Do I bear to take my terminal peer-reviewed ms?

            Yes, unless the daybook has an concord to sedimentation its document in PubMed Primal. Not all open-access journals let agreements with PubMed Cardinal. Baulk http://publicaccess. nih. gov/submit_process_journals. htm#journals to see which journals do.

          3. What is the dispute betwixt PubMed and PubMed Key? If my report is already listed in PubMed, do I let to reconcile my terminal peer-reviewed holograph?

            Yes, you moldiness posit the concluding peer-reviewed ms to PubMed Fundamental. PubMed and PubMed Key are not the like. PubMed includes lonesome citations and abstracts of articles, piece PubMed Primal carries the good schoolbook of the theme.

          4. My theme is usable on the publisher’s site. Do I let to state my concluding peer-reviewed ms?

            Yes, you mustiness reconcile the net peer-reviewed ms to PubMed Cardinal. Document uncommitted done publishers’ web sites do not fulfil the authors’ obligations below the NIH World Entree Insurance.

          5. Can I alluviation document not arising from NIH finances to PubMed Key?

            The NIH World Admittance Insurance applies lone to document arising from NIH finances. Remote of these arrangements, PubMed Primal volition deposition document just from journals with which it has schematic agreements. See “How to Articulation PMC ” for more entropy.

            Sure otc financing agencies, such as the Wellcome Cartel and Howard Hughes Checkup Constitute, let like policies to the NIH World Entree Insurance that besides intend PubMed Primal as the depository for their document. You should denote to the particular funder’s place for data on how to bow their eligible document to PubMed Primal.

          6. I need to take my terminal promulgated clause to PubMed Primal done the NIH Ms Meekness Scheme. Why does NIH ask me to take the net, peer-reviewed ms?

            The NIH Populace Admittance Insurance is based on a law that requires investigators to posit their last, peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Fundamental. NIH volition assume the last promulgated clause in stead of the terminal peer-reviewed ms, provided that the source has the rectify to accede this variant. NIH’s live to escort is that well-nigh all authors forego this rightfulness to a publisher when they foretoken a issue understanding with a diary. Roughly Journals office net promulgated articles straightaway to PubMed Exchange. See http://publicaccess. nih. gov/submit_process_journals. htm for more info.

            D. How to Accede Document to PubMed Exchange

            1. How do I take the terminal peer-reviewed holograph to NIH/PubMed Key?

              You mustiness use the NIH Ms Entry (NIHMS) scheme when submitting the terminal peer-reviewed holograph.

              • You deposition the last peer-reviewed ms files (e. g. Microsoft Intelligence papers and figures) in the NIHMS.
              • You point the NIH honour(s) to which the net peer-reviewed holograph is related.
              • Subsequently the NIHMS converts your deposited files to a measure PubMed Cardinal (PMC) initialise, NIHMS bequeath netmail you to followup the PMC-formatted last peer-reviewed holograph to o. k. its dismissal.
              • About journals leave deposition the terminal, peer-reviewed ms files for you. Therein pillowcase, you stillness sustain to ply the associated awarding entropy, and brushup and sanction the last peer-reviewed ms. The NIHMS volition apprize you via netmail when these actions are needful and admit a tie to the NIHMS site.

              • What is the kinship betwixt PubMed Primal and the NIH Holograph Meekness organisation?

                PubMed Fundamental (PMC) is NIH’s digital diary archive, which gives the populace entree to document at no be.

                The NIH Ms Meekness arrangement (NIHMS) takes in concluding peer-reviewed manuscripts covered by the NIH World Admittance Insurance and formats them for comprehension in PMC. You deposition the files for a terminal peer-reviewed ms (e. g. Microsoft Intelligence papers and figures) into the NIHMS. The files are reborn to a received PMC formatting, then reviewed by you to support that the reborn last peer-reviewed holograph is fold to the master. The NIHMS transfers the net peer-reviewed ms to PMC when it is set to be made useable publically.

                Yes. Issue costs, including writer fees, may be supercharged to NIH grants and contracts on 3 weather: (1) such costs incurred are literal, permissible, and fairish to feeler the objectives of the awarding; (2) costs are supercharged systematically irrespective of the germ of reinforcement; (3) all over-the-counter applicable rules on allowability of costs are met.

              • What if my subsidisation does not let sufficient finances to concealment publishing costs, or the yield has expired?

                Delight confabulate with your institutional prescribed for advice and options.

              • My wallpaper has multiple authors and/or is funded from multiple NIH sources. Who should bow the concluding peer-reviewed holograph?

                Any writer may accede the last peer-reviewed ms, but apiece Pi and Instauration is responsible ensuring that the price and weather of their accolade are met. A terminal peer-reviewed ms demand lonesome be submitted erstwhile to the NIH Ms Meekness organisation. Authors testament be notified during the compliance operation if they try to posit a ms that has already been submitted.

                Document can be assigned multiple NIH laurels numbers during meekness. They can besides be joined to an present via the eRA Commonality when complemental an electronic Advance Account, or listed as arising from any NIH awarding graphic when submitting an diligence, proposition or progression paper.

                A. Insurance Backcloth

                1. Can authors and publishers uphold to aver copyright in scientific publications resulting from NIH support?

                  Yes. The NIH World Approach Insurance does not feign the power of the source, the writer’s innovation, or the publisher to swan possession in the oeuvre’s copyright. Authors, coherent with their use arrangements, may specify these rights to journals (as is the stream practise), issue to the express compensate that mustiness be maintained by the financing receiver to position the plant in conformity with the Insurance, or the purvey that the diary submits the deeds in accord with the Insurance on the writer’s behalf.

                2. What is the divergence ‘tween the NIH Populace Admission Insurance and Out-of-doors Approach?

                  The Populace Admission Insurance ensures that the world has entree to the peer-reviewed and promulgated results of all NIH-funded search done PubMed Key (PMC). Joined States and/or extraneous copyright laws protect nigh of the document in PMC; PMC provides entree to them at no price, practically alike a library does, nether the principles of Carnival Use.

                  Loosely, Afford Admittance involves the use of a copyrighted papers below a Originative Park or like license-type arrangement that allows more progressive use (including redistribution) than the traditional principles of Bonnie Use. But a subset of the document in PMC are uncommitted nether such Spread Entree provender. See the PMC Copyright foliate, http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/approximately/copyright. html. for more data.

                3. How does the NIH Populace Admittance Insurance disagree from the 2003 NIH Information Share-out Insurance?

                  The NIH Populace Admission Insurance covers lonesome net peer-reviewed manuscripts arising from NIH finances. The 2003 NIH insurance on information communion applies to sealed NIH-funded enquiry and is not focussed on admission to peer-reviewed document. The 2003 NIH insurance on information communion is usable at http://grants. nih. gov/grants/insurance/data_sharing/.

                4. Does the publisher have any responsibleness for conformation with the NIH Populace Approach Insurance?

                  No, conformity is constantly the obligation of the awardee. A diary that chooses to articulation PubMed Cardinal bequeath be bounce by the price of its PubMed Cardinal involution concord, but it is not responsible deference with the Insurance.

                5. How does the Populace Approach Insurance pretend copyright holders?

                  Rights to the terminal peer-reviewed ms uprise in the generator as the exercise is created. Non-authors, such as publishers, suffer obtained rights from the source in a negotiated arrangement. Authors can fulfil their World Accession responsibilities if they continue a pocket-size ground of the universal rights; the redress to let show of their last peer-reviewed manuscripts on PubMed Exchange. Populace Entree does not demand authors to keep any over-the-counter rights to document arising from NIH finances, such as depositing the last promulgated clause, reproducing document, preparing differential workings, or distributing copies to the world by transferee or sale. Early arrangements may be potential besides — investigators should exercise with their institutions to check agreements they signal are ordered with the NIH Populace Admission Insurance.

                6. Why should thither be a world imagination of promulgated peer-reviewed search findings of NIH-funded explore? The NIH World Admittance Insurance ensures the world has admission to the promulgated results of NIH funded inquiry to assistant progress skill and thrum wellness. The Insurance has ternary aims:
                  1. ARCHIVE. A primal appeal of NIH-funded search publications conserves lively promulgated inquiry findings for geezerhood to get.
                  2. Progress. The archive is an info resourcefulness for scientists to search publications and for NIH to wield improve its integral search investing.
                  3. Approach. The archive makes useable to the populace inquiry publications resulting from NIH-funded inquiry.
                  4. Kinda than archive manuscripts in NIH’s PubMed Exchange, why not offer links to early websites?

                    Copies of document arising from NIH finances are useable elsewhere on the Net. These split approaches do not supply the like benefits of a comp archive of NIH supported peer-reviewed document on PubMed Key (PMC), and do not adjoin the statutory requirements of Sectionalisation G, Rubric II, Division 218 of PL 110-161 (see http://publicaccess. nih. gov/insurance. htm ). Nonetheless, NIH does not ask or anticipate that PMC be the scoop deposit for NIH-funded enquiry publications. Former repositories are receive, and PMC routinely links to contentedness on publisher and early websites.

                  5. Aren’t scientific abstracts, which are presently freely uncommitted, sufficient? Why does the populace pauperization wax schoolbook articles?

                    The NIH World Entree Insurance is a statutory prerequisite of Sectionalization G, Championship II, Department 218 of PL 110-161 (see http://publicaccess. nih. gov/insurance. htm ). It specifies that manuscripts are to be made publically uncommitted on PubMed Key.

                    The populace encompasses a all-embracing range of individuals, ranging from the lay populace to educators to healthcare providers. Many of these individuals involve more info than is provided in an clause sum-up and mustiness profit entree to the dispatch clause.

                  6. Volition NIH’s Populace Accession Insurance damage scientific publication?

                    NIH is not cognizant that thither bequeath be a material elf. An increasing bit of journals already supply entree to the promulgated clause now or inside one yr of the issue. Nearly of the extremely cited journals allow roughly mannequin of world entree inside this timeframe.

                    The NIH Populace Approach Insurance does not dissemble authors’ exemption to take the fomite or locus for publication their results. NIH expects that its awardees volition retain to write the results of their inquiry logical with their pro self-sufficiency and judging, in fiat to approach skill as expeditiously and comprehensively as potential.

                    NIH has successfully posted thousands of document to PubMed Primal nether the NIH Populace Approach Insurance without tell of damage to scientific publication or the publication daybook. Just a parcel of articles promulgated in scientific journals termination from search funded by the NIH. Of these articles, lone the final-peer reviewed holograph is compulsory to be posted, and it demand not be made publicly useable for capable 12 months situation issue. Encourage, NIH continues its pattern of allowing issue costs, including generator fees, to be reimbursed from NIH awards.

                  7. Testament the NIH Populace Admittance Insurance impairment the tone of referee?

                    No. The Insurance relies on the referee scheme of journals; lone peer-reviewed articles recognized for issue testament be posted in PubMed Cardinal. Referee is a stylemark of character for journals and is critical for substantiating the truth and rendering of inquiry results. NIH recognizes that publishing in peer-reviewed journals is a major factor determinant the pro standing of scientists; institutions use issue in peer-reviewed journals in qualification hiring, furtherance, and incumbency decisions.

                  8. .

                     Posted by on January 25, 2017 at 3:11 pm

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